Operation research is a branch of applied mathematics which uses scientific methods and techniques to solve the problems of decision making. It is based on mathematical computing and analysis and it is used in engineering, business management and higher administration. It uses analytical methods to solve the complex questions and helps to get proper decision through step by step mathematical analysis. Operation research is also known as operational research (OR) and helps us to chose the most efficient way to accomplish the task in a minimum time with minimum resources.
Operation research was developed with the industrial growth and took its present shape in 20th century at the time of World War II when military used it to prepare the war strategy. During the Second World War it was developed as a science of management. Basically it is an engineering branch and it was used first time by Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) to estimate the anti-aircraft artillery rounds to shoot down an enemy aircraft. Later it was adopted by modern management science and engineering.
Today it is applied to everywhere and anywhere to solve complex problems. It uses several methods to analyze the content and data such as mathematical modeling, optimization and statistical analysis to reach the nearest solution of the complex decision making problems. It is also used to determine the realistic idea of production, performance and required resources. Operation research works with several tools such as mathematical modeling and optimization, statistics, probability theory, graph theory, queuing theory and decision analysis. Now-a-days researchers use computer sciences and advanced software to solve the problems of decision making.
Usually operation research is applied to solve decision making problems, but it has some more characteristics which make it awesome science. It also identifies the critical path analysis for complex project, floor planning or establishment of basic infrastructure in business or industry, network optimization, supply chain management, automation, transportation, pre scheduling the work.
It is also identified to find the possible future development ways, establishing communication networks and schedule the process and other management activities/task so that it can be achieved appropriate goal in a fixed time limit. It is also applied in management science to get the exact idea of present and futuristic situations.